U.S. Geological Survey National Produced Waters Geochemical Database v2.3

During hydrocarbon production, water is typically co-produced from the geologic formations producing oil and gas. Understanding the composition of these produced waters is important to help investigate the regional hydrogeology, the source of the water, the efficacy of water treatment and disposal plans, potential economic benefits of mineral commodities in the fluids, and the safety of potential sources of drinking or agricultural water. In addition to waters co-produced with hydrocarbons, geothermal development or exploration brings deep formation waters to the surface for possible sampling. This U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Produced Waters Geochemical Database, which contains geochemical and other information for 114,943 produced water and other deep formation water samples of the United States, is a provisional, updated version of the 2002 USGS Produced Waters Database (Breit and others, 2002). In addition to the major element data presented in the original, the new database contains trace elements, isotopes, and time-series data, as well as nearly 100,000 additional samples that provide greater spatial coverage from both conventional and unconventional reservoir types, including geothermal. The database is a compilation of 40 individual databases, publications, or reports. The database was created in a manner to facilitate addition of new data and correct any compilation errors, and is expected to be updated over time with new data as provided and needed. Table 1, USGSPWDBv2.3 Data Sources.csv, shows the abbreviated ID of each input database (IDDB), the number of samples from each, and its reference. Table 2, USGSPWDBv2.3 Data Dictionary.csv, defines the 190 variables contained in the database and their descriptions. The database variables are organized first with identification and location information, followed by well descriptions, dates, rock properties, physical properties of the water, and then chemistry. The chemistry is organized alphabetically by elemental symbol. Each element is followed by any associated compounds (e.g. H2S is found after S). After Zr, molecules containing carbon, organic 9 compounds and dissolved gases follow. Isotopic data are found at the end of the dataset, just before the culling parameters.

Data and Resources


Field Value
Division Energy and Minerals
Subdivision Energy Resources Program
Contact Name Madalyn S Blondes
Contact Email [email protected]
Contact Phone (703) 648-6509
Publication Date 2019-05-22
Known Uses of Data The purpose of the U.S. Geological Survey National Produced Waters Geochemical Database v2.3 is to provide all background information on the compositions of waters produced along with oil and gas to all relevant stakeholders, including industry, the government, environmental groups, and the public.
Data Collection Frequency One-time
Data Publishing Method ArcGIS REST Map Service, Map Service
Data Publishing Frequency One-time
Data Quality Procedures Attribute Accuracy Report: Quality control of the dataset can be performed by culling based on geochemical criteria. In this version 2.3 of the provisional database, the data that fall outside of the bounds of the following criteria are flagged, rather than culled. There are six temporary columns in the database that indicate the failure to meet specific culling criteria, based on those published in Hitchon and Brulotte (1994). An “X” is placed in the columns shown in the "USGSPWDBv2.3 Data Dictionary.csv" file where the sample falls outside of the pH range of 4.5 – 10.5; where Mg > Ca, K > Cl, or K > 5 x Na; and where the charge balance error is greater than 15%. The data were kept to allow the user to make judgment calls on their quality. Logical Consistency Report: Samples with duplicate American Petroleum Institute well identification (API) codes and chemical concentrations with large numbers of significant figures in common, were culled. It is unlikely that two samples, even from the same well, will have the exact same concentrations for three or more analytes, and therefore such similarities represent true duplicates. API code, calcium (Ca), chloride (Cl), and bicarbonate (HCO3) concentrations are used for a starting duplicate search. If these analytes were detected in samples that did not appear to be true duplicates, other analytes like Na and Mg were added to the search. Care was taken to avoid false duplicates (e.g. where all three of the initial ions had null data). Completeness Report: Data set is considered complete for the information presented, as described in the abstract. Users are advised to read the rest of the metadata record carefully for additional details.
Version 2.3
Geographic Location United States. Bounding coordinates: West Bounding Coordinate: -162.77332 East Bounding Coordinate: -75.61 North Bounding Coordinate: 71.26424 South Bounding Coordinate: 25.2819
Last Updated 06 November 2023
Published 06 November 2023