Multi-tracer investigation of groundwater residence time in a karstic aquifer: Bitter Lake National Wildlife Refuge, New Mexico, USA - Open-file Report 521

Several natural and anthropogenic tracers have been used to evaluate groundwater residence time within a karstic limestone aquifer in southeastern New Mexico, USA. Natural groundwater discharge occurs in the lower Pecos Valley from a region of karst springs, wetlands and sinkhole lakes at Bitter Lake National Wildlife Refuge,on the northeast margin of the Roswell Artesian Basin. The springs and sinkholes are formed in gypsum bedrock that serves as a leaky confining unit for an artesian aquifer in the underlying San Andres limestone. Because wetlands on the Refuge provide habitat for threatened and endangered species, there is concern about the potential for contamination by anthropogenic activity in the aquifer recharge area. Estimates of the time required for groundwater to travel through the artesian aquifer vary widely because of uncertainties regarding karst conduit flow. A better understanding of groundwater residence time is required to make informed decisions about management of water resources and wildlife habitat at Bitter Lake. Results indicate that the artesian aquifer contains a significant component of water recharged within the last 10 to 50 years, combined with pre-modern groundwater originating from deeper underlying aquifers, some of which may be indirectly sourced from the high Sacramento Mountains to the west.

Data and Resources


Field Value
Division Hydrogeology
Subdivision Aquifer Mapping Program
Contact Name Stacy Timmons
Contact Email
Contact Phone 575-835-5490
Publication Date 2010-01-01
Data Collection Frequency One-time
Data Publishing Method website, print
Data Publishing Frequency One-time
Version 1.0
Geographic Location Chaves County
Data Source NMBGMR
Last Updated 25 November 2023
Published 30 May 2023